List of laws

Natural lawin philosophya system of right or justice held to be common to all humans and derived from nature rather than from the rules of society, or positive law. There have been several disagreements over the meaning of natural law and its relation to positive law.

In contrast, the Stoics conceived of an entirely egalitarian law of nature in conformity with the logos reason inherent in the human mind. Roman jurists paid lip service to this notion, which was reflected in the writings of St. Paul c. In the 12th century, Gratianan Italian monk and father of the study of canon lawequated natural law with divine law—that is, with the revealed law of the Old and the New Testament, in particular the Christian version of the Golden Rule.

Thomas Aquinas c. Human law must be the particular application of natural law. In an epoch-making appeal, Hugo Grotius — claimed that nations were subject to natural law. John Locke — departed from Hobbesian pessimism to the extent of describing the state of nature as a state of society, with free and equal men already observing the natural law.

The confidence in appeals to natural law displayed by 17th- and 18th-century writers such as Locke and the authors of the American Declaration of Independence evaporated in the early 19th century.

In the midth century, however, there was a revival of interest in natural law, sparked by the widespread belief that the Nazi regime of Adolf Hitlerwhich ruled Germany from tohad been essentially lawless, even though it also had been the source of a significant amount of positive law. As in previous centuries, the need to challenge the unjust laws of particular states inspired the desire to invoke rules of right and justice held to be natural rather than merely conventional.

Natural law. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Early formulations of the concept of natural law Natural law in the Enlightenment and the modern era. See Article History. Alternative Titles: iusnaturalism, jus naturale, lex naturalis.The following is a list of employment laws that regulate hiring, wages, hours and salary, discrimination, harassment, employee benefits, paid time off, job applicant and employee testing, privacy, and other important workplace and employee rights issues.

Some U. In those locations, state law would apply. If the active service member becomes seriously ill or is injured in the course of their duties, coverage may be extended for up to 26 weeks of unpaid leave during a month period.

The United States has hundreds of federal employment and labor laws that affect employers and employees. Here is a list of resources for some of the most important U. Some states have also set lower wages, but in these cases, the higher federal minimum prevails. It depends on many factors, including state and federal law.

Find out when you are due back pay and how to collect it if you have an issue with an employer, here. It pays to understand company policy. The Consumer Credit Protection Act sets limits and protections for workers. Learn about when an employee is employed at will, and about exceptions to the law. These are provided to workers who have lost their jobs through no fault of their own.

It regulates minimum wage, overtime, and child labor laws. In addition to federal leave, some states have enacted family and medical leave legislation. Check with your state department of labor for availability in your location.

The type of visa varies depending on the type of employment. Review the differences and how your earnings and taxes are impacted by your classification. Some employers offer this insurance, and some states sponsor programs. Need more information about specific labor laws? Department of Labor that provide detailed information about a number of federal employment laws. The information contained in this article is not legal advice and is not a substitute for such advice.

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list of laws

Laws Regulating Wages and Compensation. Hiring and Firing. Discrimination Protections. Labor Laws. Other Employment Laws. Continue Reading.Please enable JavaScript in your web browser; otherwise some parts of this site might not work properly. One way to learn about federal laws and regulations is through the federal agencies charged with enforcing them.

Check the list below for links to agency sites on popular legal topics. Where no federal law exists, sites offer compilations of state laws on a topic. Fair Housing Act. It guarantees equal opportunity in:. It's available to businesses, state and local governments, and the public. Call 1- TTY: Federal agencies with ADA responsibilities.

Guidelines and standards for telecommunications, public transportation, and recreational facilities. A guide to the ADA standards for buildings. Section of the Rehabilitation Act requires federal agencies to make electronic and information technology accessible. View information on Section law. For questions, contact the Section program. According to Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Acthotels, restaurants, and certain places of entertainment must provide disability access. The U.

Environmental Protection Agency EPA addresses several issues, from setting limits on certain air pollutants to enforcing federal clean water and safe drinking laws. In addition, EPA enforces federal regulations to reduce the impact of businesses on the environment. The FDA has responsibility over the safety of food and any substance that is applied to the human body.

list of laws

This includes the presence or handling of chemicals and noxious fumes.A legal education can open up new and interesting career opportunities. Law schools offer a wide variety of degrees or certificates to match your interests, your goals, and your schedule. Animal law is the study and practice of law relating to animals.

As an animal rights lawyer, you apply the legal system to speak for animals and their human associates and allies. You might be contesting animal exploiters, defending animal rights activists, and campaigning for the legal status and rights of animals. Animal rights attorneys often work for:. Civil rights law strikes at the balance of governmental power and individual liberties.

Although this is a small and competitive field, many lawyers whose main practices are in other fields serve as civil rights lawyers by taking cases on a pro bono without a charge or a fee basis.

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Full-time civil rights attorneys often work for:. Corporate law focuses on helping clients conduct their business affairs in a manner that is efficient and consistent with the law. Corporate law practice areas include:. Criminal law focuses on the fundamental issues of the law and personal liberties.

Lawyers in this field defend many of the basic rights considered crucial to the preservation of a free and just society. There are two main types of criminal law lawyers:.

Education law focuses generally on counseling school districts or other educational agencies. Some education lawyers may represent parents with children with special-education needs or student expulsions against a school district.

Education law practice areas include:. Employment and labor law focuses on addressing the legal rights of workers and their employers. Attorneys in this field might represent an individual employee, a group of employees, job applicants, a union, union employees, government workers, a business, a government agency, or interest groups. Employment and labor law practice areas include:. Environmental and natural resources law focuses on the legal and regulatory issues relating to natural resources.

Environmental and natural resources lawyers may work directly for governmental agencies, public interest groups, or organizations concerned about protecting the environment. Environmental and natural resources law practice areas include:.

list of laws

Family and juvenile law focuses on the relationships between individuals within the context of family. Many lawyers in this field are members of small firms or practice law on their own. Family and juvenile law practice areas include:. Health law focuses on regulations that impact the health care industry and its patients. Health law lawyers can represent hospitals, physician groups, health maintenance organizations HMOsindividual doctors, universities, and many others.

Health law practice areas include:. Immigration law focuses on the legal issues and policies relating to immigrants who come to the United States on a temporary or permanent basis. An immigration lawyer may work for the government, a law firm, a community-based organization, or in-house for a company employing immigrants.Common lawalso called Anglo-American lawthe body of customary law, based upon judicial decisions and embodied in reports of decided cases, that has been administered by the common-law courts of England since the Middle Ages.

From it has evolved the type of legal system now found also in the United States and in most of the member states of the Commonwealth formerly the British Commonwealth of Nations. In this sense common law stands in contrast to the legal system derived from civil lawnow widespread in continental Europe and elsewhere. In another, narrower, sense, common law is contrasted to the rules applied in English and American courts of equity and also to statute law.

Common law

A standing expository difficulty is that, whereas the United Kingdom is a unitary state in international lawit comprises three major and other minor legal systems, those of England and WalesScotlandand Northern Ireland.

Historically, the common-law system in England applied to Wales since has directly influenced that in Ireland but only partially influenced the distinct legal system in Scotland, which is therefore, except as regards international matters, not covered in this article.

The legal systems in the United Kingdom have, sinceexperienced integration into the system of European Union law, which has direct effects upon the domestic law of its constituent states—the majority of which have domestic systems that have been influenced by the civil-law tradition and that cultivate a more purposive technique of legislative interpretation than has been customary in the English common law.

The regime of human rights represented by the European Convention on Human Rights has exercised a similar influence in the United Kingdom since the passage by Parliament of the Human Rights Act Like many other early legal systems, it did not originally consist of substantive rights but rather of procedural remedies.

The working out of these remedies has, over time, produced the modern system in which rights are seen as primary over procedure. Until the late 19th century, English common law continued to be developed primarily by judges rather than legislators. The common law of England was largely created in the period after the Norman Conquest of The Anglo-Saxonsespecially after the accession of Alfred the Greathad developed a body of rules resembling those being used by the Germanic peoples of northern Europe.

Local customs governed most matters, while the church played a large part in government. Crimes were treated as wrongs for which compensation was made to the victim. The Norman Conquest did not bring an immediate end to Anglo-Saxon lawbut a period of colonial rule by the mainly Norman conquerors produced change. Land was allocated to feudal vassals of the king, many of whom had joined the conquest with this reward in mind.

Serious wrongs were regarded mainly as public crimes rather than as personal matters, and the perpetrators were punished by death and forfeiture of property. Government was centralized, a bureaucracy built up, and written records maintained. Controversy exists regarding the extent to which the efficient government of the Anglo-Norman realm was due to the legacy of Anglo-Saxon institutions or to the ruthlessness of the Norman invaders.

Elements of the Anglo-Saxon system that survived were the juryordeals trials by physical test or combatthe practice of outlawry putting a person beyond the protection of the lawand writs orders requiring a person to appear before a court; see below The development of a centralized judiciary. Important consolidation occurred during the reign of Henry II — Royal officials roamed the country, inquiring about the administration of justice.

Church and state were separate and had their own law and court systems. This led to centuries of rivalry over jurisdictionespecially since appeals from church courts, before the Reformationcould be taken to Rome. The Normans spoke French and had developed a customary law in Normandy. They had no professional lawyers or judges; instead, literate clergymen acted as administrators.

Some of the clergy were familiar with Roman law and the canon law of the Christian church, which was developed in the universities of the 12th century. Canon law was applied in the English church courts, but the revived Roman law was less influential in England than elsewhere, despite Norman dominance in government. This was due largely to the early sophistication of the Anglo-Norman system.

Norman custom was not simply transplanted to England; upon its arrival, a new body of rules, based on local conditions, emerged. Common law. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback.The lawmaker's excuse for these sometimes outrageous pieces of legislation is that they not always have the time to read or understand what type of the new law they are approving.

Or when German authorities imposed a fine of Euros on a mother of an eight-year-old girl who refused to open her mouth for the school dentist. It is legal to drive the wrong way down a one-way street if you have a lantern attached to the front of your automobile. While it is legal to shoot bears, waking a sleeping bear for the purpose of taking a photograph is prohibited. When being attacked by a criminal or burglar, you may only protect yourself with the same weapon that the criminal is using.

In Globe, you cannot play cards in the street with a Native American. In Los Angeles, customers in meat markets are prohibited from poking a turkey to see how tender it is. It is a misdemeanor to shoot at any kind of game from a moving vehicle, unless the target is a whale. Animals are banned from mating publicly within 1, feet of a tavern, school, or place of worship. In Los Angeles a man is legally entitled to beat his wife with a leather belt or strap, but the belt can't be wider than 2 inches, unless he has his wife's consent to beat her with a wider strap.

In California, community leaders passed an ordinance that makes it illegal for anyone to try and stop a child from playfully jumping over puddles of water. The dog catcher must notify dogs of impounding by posting, for 3 consecutive days, a notice on a tree in the city park and along a public road running through said park. In Waterbury it is illegal for any beautician to hum, whistle, or sing while working on a customer.

Alcohol may not be served in nightclubs if dancing is occurring on the premises at the same time. It is illegal to fly over any body of water, unless one is carrying sufficient supplies of food and drink. If an elephant is left tied to a parking meter, the parking fee has to be paid just as it would for a vehicle. It is illegal to use profanity in front of a dead body which lies in a funeral home or in a coroners office. Members of the state assembly cannot be ticketed for speeding while the state assembly is in session.

In Columbus, GA it's illegal to deface a house, fence or tree in any way like carving one's name in it inside the city limits. Police officers in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho aren't allowed to walk up and knock on the window of a parked car who's occupants are having sex. Any suspicious officer who thinks that sex is taking place must drive up from behind, honk his horn three times and wait approximately 3 minutes before getting out of his car to investigate.

A person may not be seen in public without a smile on their face. It is legal to protest naked in front of city hall as long as you are under seventeen years of age and have legal permits. It is unlawful to change clothes in an automobile with the curtains drawn, except in case of fire. French Lick Springs, once passed a law requiring all black cats to wear bells on Friday the 13th. Anyone 14 or older who profanely curses, damns or swears by the name of God, Jesus Christ or the Holy Ghost, shall be fined one to three dollars for each offense, with a maximum fine of ten dollars per day.

A man over the age of 18 may be arrested for statutory rape if the passenger in his car is not wearing her socks and shoes, and is under the age of A person must get a referral from a licensed physician if he or she wishes to see a hypnotist unless the desired procedure is to quit smoking or lose weight. In Fort Madison the fire department is required to practice fire fighting for fifteen minutes before attending a fire. In Mount Vernon one must obtain written permission from the City Council before throwing bricks into a highway.

An ordinance in Lawrence, Kansas, forbids anyone to carry bees in his hat while on the city streets. In Lawrence all cars entering the city limits must first sound their horn to warn the horses of their arrival. If two trains meet on the same track, neither shall proceed until the other has passed. In Kentucky, by law, anyone who has been drinking is "sober" until he or she "cannot hold onto the ground.

Rituals that involve the ingestion of blood, urine, or fecal matter are not allowed.In the first law, an object will not change its motion unless a force acts on it.

list of laws

In the third law, when two objects interact, they apply forces to each other of equal magnitude and opposite direction. Mechanics is the study of how objects move or do not move when forces act upon them.

This postulate is known as the law of inertia. Before Galileo it had been thought that all horizontal motion required a direct cause, but Galileo deduced from his experiments that a body in motion would remain in motion unless a force such as friction caused it to come to rest. It states that the time rate of change of the momentum of a body is equal in both magnitude and direction to the force imposed on it.

The momentum of a body is equal to the product of its mass and its velocity. Momentum, like velocityis a vector quantity, having both magnitude and direction. A force applied to a body can change the magnitude of the momentum, or its direction, or both.

Laws & Guidance

If a body has a net force acting on it, it is accelerated in accordance with the equation. Conversely, if a body is not accelerated, there is no net force acting on it. The third law is also known as the law of action and reaction. This law is important in analyzing problems of static equilibriumwhere all forces are balanced, but it also applies to bodies in uniform or accelerated motion.

The forces it describes are real ones, not mere bookkeeping devices. For example, a book resting on a table applies a downward force equal to its weight on the table.

According to the third law, the table applies an equal and opposite force to the book. This force occurs because the weight of the book causes the table to deform slightly so that it pushes back on the book like a coiled spring. In Nicolaus Copernicus suggested that the Sun, rather than Earth, might be at the centre of the universe. In the intervening years Galileo, Johannes Keplerand Descartes laid the foundations of a new science that would both replace the Aristotelian worldview, inherited from the ancient Greeks, and explain the workings of a heliocentric universe.

In the Principia Newton created that new science. He developed his three laws in order to explain why the orbits of the planets are ellipses rather than circles, at which he succeeded, but it turned out that he explained much more. The series of events from Copernicus to Newton is known collectively as the Scientific Revolution. Newton's laws of motion. Article Media.

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